Development of Standardized Herbal Therapy of Bangle Extract (Zingiber Cassumunar Roxb.) on The Expression of Icam - 1 for Complementary Therapy to Prevent Complications in Malaria

Wiwien Sugih Utami(1), Heni Fatmawati(2), Bagus Hermansyah(3),
(1) Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Jember University, Indonesia
(2) Department of Histology, Faculty of Medicine, Jember University, Indonesia
(3) Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Jember University, Indonesia

Abstract


Background : Malaria is still a major problem, both in international and national scale. Erythrocytes containing Plasmodium sp. will stimulate the release of Th1 (T helper-1) and release monocytes and macrophages to perform phagocytosis and produce tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). The release of iNOS and free radicals would increase the expression of adhesion molecules such as ICAM-1, VCAM-1, CD36, and P-selectin. Research shows that IL- 10 can inhibit the production of TNF - α and IL - 1. TNF-α and ICAM - 1 play a role in the occurrence of cerebral malaria. Bangle (Zingiber cassumunar Roxb.) has a lot of potentials to be utilized as a complementary therapy to prevent the complications of malaria.


Objective : This study aims to find the ability of Bangle (Zingiber cassumunar Roxb.) extract as an immunostimulant which would be used as a complementary therapy for standard malaria treatment.


Methods : A number of 25 mice Balb/C males were divided into 5 groups, stimulated with methanol fractions of Bangle extract for 14 consecutive days before infected with Plasmodium berghei. All groups were examined
for parasite daily, until day 7 post-positive malaria, referring to Artemisinindose regimen administered orally 0.04 mg/g bw/day for 7 days.


Results : This study proves that the administration of Artemisinin combined with methanol fraction of Bangle extract provides better results to inhibit ICAM-1 gene expression in malaria-infected mice compared to single-therapy Artemisinin or methanol fraction of bangle extract.


Conclusion : The combination of artemisinin and methanol fraction of Bangle extract can inhibit ICAM-1 gene expression in malaria-infected mice better compared to without the combination.


Keywords


Zingiber cassumunar Roxb, malaria, immunomodulator, standardized herbal therapy, ICAM-1

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: https://doi.org/10.20885/JKKI.Vol8.Iss3.art8