The cyclicality of government expenditure in developing country: the case of Indonesia

Haryo Kuncoro


This paper analyzes the cyclicality and the relationship between government expenditure and output of Indonesia, 1999-2012 using Johansen co-integration test and the error correction model. The results confirm that in the short-run the government expenditure reveals counter-cyclical but pro-cyclical in the longrun. Output and government expenditure are co-integrated and it implies the existence of long-term relationship. The value of short-run elasticity coefficient for government expenditure is relatively high. In contrast, the long-run elasticity coefficient is lower and statistically greater than unity confirming the voracity hypothesis. Furthermore, there is no significant difference of government spending in good and bad times.


Government, Expenditure, Cyclicality, Voracity, Elasticity

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Economic Journal of Emerging Markets (EJEM)
ISSN 2086-3128 (print), ISSN 2502-180X (online)
Published by:
Center for Economic Studies, Department of Economics,
Universitas Islam Indonesia, Indonesia.

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