Comparison the level of Standard Deviation of N-N interval (SDNN) among Adolescent in Non Smokers and Smokers in Yogyakarta

Nurfazrin H. Akuba, Nurvita Risdiana


Background: Smoking has a negative impact on health. It makes an imbalance of the autonomic nervous system (ANS). It influenced the standard deviation of N-N interval (SDNN). SDNN has a duty as indicator for ANS controlled, consequently, SDNN in smokers is lower than non smokers because of ANS imbalance. Therefore, smokers have high risk for non communicable disease (NCD) in the future.
Objective: This research’s purpose was to know the comparison of SDNN level among smokers and non smokers adolescent.
Methods: This research was non-experimental study with descriptive comparative design and cross sectional approach. The samples divided into 2 groups with each of group consists of 20 students. They were chose by purposive sampling techniques. SDNN level was measured by electrocardiogram (ECG) for 5 minutes with the provision that they should no tea, caffeine, alcohol consumption and no heavy exercise within 2 hours before data collected, feel free from desire to go to bathroom, feeling relax when data collection were performed. The data was analyzed by Mann Whithey test.
Results: There was a significant difference of between smokers’ SDNN and non smokers’ with p= 0.038 (p<0.05). Smokers’ SDNN was lower than non smokers’.
Conclussion: Smokers’ SDNN level was lower than non smokers’. 


Smoking; SDNN; Autonomic Nervous System

Full Text:



Kementrian Kesehatan RI. Penyakit Tidak Menular. 2012. (Buletin Jendela dan Informasi Kesehatan Volume 2 Semester II).

World Health Organization. Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS): Indonesian report 2011 [Internet]. Jakarta; 2011. Available from:

Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan. Riset kesehatan dasar (Riskesdas): Penggunaan tembakau [Internet]. Jakarta; 2013. Available from: Riskesdas 2013.pdf

Harte BC, Meston MC. Effects of smoking cessation on hear rate variability among long-term male smokers. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine. 2014;21(2):302–9.

Gondim MR, Breno QF, Carolina FS, Raphael MR. Are smoking and passive smoking related with heart rate variability in male adolescents. Einstein. 2015;13(1):27–33.

Corrales MM, Torres CB, Esquive GA, Salazar GM, Orellana NJ. Normal values of heart rate variability at rest in a young, healthy and active Mexican population. Health. 2012;4(7):377–85.

Shaffer F, McCraty R, Zerr CL. A healthy heart is not metronome: An integrative of the heart’s anatomy and heart rate variability. Frontiers in psycology. 2014;5.

Makivic B, Nikic DM, Willis SM. Heart Rate Variability (HRV) as a tool for diagnostic and monitoring performance in sport and physical activities. Journal of the American Society of Exercise Physiologists. Journal of the American Society of Exercise Physiologists. 2013;16(3):103–31.

Braga LM, Prado GF, Kawauchi TS, Taboada AMF, Azevedo RS, Filho HGP, et al. Reproducibility for heart rate variability analysis during 6-min walk test in patients with heart failure and agreement between devices. PlosOne. 2016;11(12):1–14.

Park KJ, Jeong H. Assesing methods of heart rate variability. Korean Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology. 2014;16(2):49–54.

Wang H, Huang S. SDNN/RMSSD as a surrogate for LF/HF: A revised investigation. Modelling and Simulation in Engineering. 2012;2012:1–8.

Heathers JA. Everything Hertz: Methodological issues in short-term frequency-domain HRV. Frontiers in Physiology. 2014;5(177):1–15.

Zhang J. Effect of age and sex on heart rate variability in healthy subjects. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics. 2007;30(5):374–9.