Main Article Content


“Life satisfaction” is an individual’s cognitive assessment of the quality of their life. One factor that influences life satisfaction is the meaning of work. The “meaning of work” is a person’s broad perspective of his work. This study investigates whether there is a significant effect of the meaning of work on the life satisfaction of Confucian ministers in Indonesia. This quantitative research was conducted with a linear regression research design on 81 active Confucian ministers throughout Indonesia. The measurement tools used in this study are the Work as Meaning Inventory (WAMI) to measure the meaning of work and the Riverside Life Satisfaction Scale (RLSS) to measure life satisfaction. The results of this study found that the meaning of work had a significant effect of 18.4% on the life satisfaction of Confucian ministers. In addition, it was also found that the dimension of meaning-making through work has the greatest influence on life satisfaction. Based on these results, it is suggested that leaders of Confucian ministers to make better regulations for their organizations to improve the life satisfaction of their ministers by focusing on their perceived meaning of work.


Confucian Minister Life Satisfaction Meaning of Work

Article Details

How to Cite
William, A. ., & Novanto, Y. . (2023). Influence of the Meaning of Work on the Life Satisfaction of Confucian Ministers in Indonesia. Millah: Journal of Religious Studies, 22(2), 313–350.


  1. Aguinis, H., & Glavas, A. (2019). On corporate social responsibility, sensemaking, and the search for meaningfulness through work. Journal of Management, 45(3), 1057–1086.

  2. Agustin, S. (2021). Solidaritas sosial umat Khonghucu di Klenteng Boen Bio Surabaya [Bachelor’s thesis, Fakultas Ushuluddin dan Filsafat, UIN Sunan Ampel Surabaya].

  3. Allan, B. A., Batz-Barbarich, C., Sterling, H. M., & Tay, L. (2019). Outcomes of meaningful work: A meta‐analysis. Journal of Management Studies, 56(3), 500–528.

  4. Aprilia, S. & Murtiningsih. (2017). Eksistensi Agama Khonghucu di indonesia. Jurnal Studi Agama, 1(1), 15–40.

  5. Argyle, M. (2002). The psychology of happiness (2nd edition reprinted). Routledge.

  6. Asrilita, T. (2019). Studi Homiletika: Pengaruh pengkhotbah tamu dalam pertumbuhan iman di JKI Immanuel Kudus [Homiletic Studies: The influence of guest preachers in the growth of faith at JKI Immanuel Kudus] [Bachelor’s thesis, Program Studi Teologi, Universitas Kristen Satya Wacana].

  7. Azwar, S. (2012). Penyusunan skala psikologi [Preparation of a psychological scale] (2nd edition). Pustaka Pelajar.

  8. Bastaman, H. D. (2007). Logoterapi: Psikologi untuk menemukan makna hidup dan meraih hidup bermakna [Logotherapy: Psychology to find the meaning of life and achieve a meaningful life]. PT. Raja Grafindo Persada.

  9. Burger, K., & Samuel, R. (2017). The role of perceived stress and self-efficacy in young people’s life satisfaction: A longitudinal study. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 46(1), 78–90.

  10. Cheney, G., Zorn, T. E., Planalp, S., & Lair, D. J. (2008). Meaningful work and personal/social well-being organizational communication engages the meanings of work. Annals of the International Communication Association, 32(1), 137–185.

  11. Church of England. (2007). Common worship ordination services paperback. Church House Publishing.

  12. Coffey, M. F. (2019). Ministry and leadership in early Christianity. The Furrow, 70(5), 277–283.

  13. Diener, E., & Biswas‐Diener, R. (2008). Happiness: Unlocking the mysteries of psychological wealth. Wiley.

  14. Diener, E., Emmons, R. A., Larsen, R. J., & Griffin, S. (1985). The Satisfaction with Life Scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49(1), 71–75.

  15. Diener, E., Suh, E. M., Lucas, R. E., & Smith, H. L. (1999). Subjective well-being: Three decades of progress. Psychological Bulletin, 125(2), 276–302.

  16. Ebersole, P., & Depaola, S. (1987). Meaning in life categories of later life couples. The Journal of Psychology, 121(2), 185–191.

  17. Erdogan, B., Bauer, T. N., Truxillo, D. M., & Mansfield, L. R. (2012). Whistle while you work: A review of the life satisfaction literature. Journal of Management, 38(4), 1038–1083.

  18. Frankl, V. E. (1992). Man’s search for meaning: An introduction to logotherapy (4th edition). Beacon Press.

  19. Freiberg, J. W. (1977). The dialectic of Confucianism and Taoism in Ancient China. Dialectical Anthropology, 2(3), 175–198.

  20. Görgens-Ekermans, G., & Steyn, R. (2016). Optimism, self-efficacy and meaningfulness: A structural model of subjective well-being at work. Management Dynamics : Journal of the Southern African Institute for Management Scientists, 25(4), 34–51.

  21. Gottfredson, N. C., Panter, A. T., Daye, C. E., Allen, W. T., Wightman, L. F., & Deo, M. E. (2008). Identifying predictors of law student life satisfaction. Journal of Legal Education, 58(4), 520–530.

  22. Hackman, J. R., & Oldham, G. R. (1980). Work redesign. Addison-Wesley.

  23. Hadiana, E. N., & Wakhudin. (2022). Relasi guru agama khonghucu dengan masyarakat di Indonesia [The relationship between Confucian religion teachers and the people in Indonesia]. Jurnal Multidisiplin Madani, 2(6), 2847–2862.

  24. Hidayatulloh, M. T., & Farida, A. (2018). Kebutuhan layanan keagamaan umat Khonghucu di DKI Jakarta [The need for religious services for Confucians in DKI Jakarta]. Harmoni, 17(1), 118–136.

  25. Hwang, K.-K. (2001). The deep structure of Confucianism: A social psychological approach. Asian Philosophy, 11(3), 179–204.

  26. JASP Team. (2022). JASP Version

  27. Kementerian Agama RI. (2022, Agustus). Jumlah penduduk menurut agama [Population by religion]. Satu Data Kementerian Agama RI.

  28. Khuswardhani, K., & Mubarak, A. (2016). Hubungan antara pemaknaan kerja dengan motivasi kerja karyawan roomboy di Hotel X Bandung [The relationship between the meaning of work with the work motivation of roomboy employees at Hotel X Bandung]. Prosiding Psikologi, 2(2), 693–698.

  29. Kim, M., & Beehr, T. A. (2018). Organization-based self-esteem and meaningful work mediate effects of empowering leadership on employee behaviors and well-being. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 25(4), 385–398.

  30. Magnano, P., Santisi, G., Zammitti, A., Zarbo, R., & Di Nuovo, S. (2019). Self-perceived employability and meaningful work: The mediating role of courage on quality of life. Sustainability, 11(3), 764.

  31. Margolis, S., Schwitzgebel, E., Ozer, D. J., & Lyubomirsky, S. (2019). A new measure of life satisfaction: The Riverside Life Satisfaction Scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 101(6), 621–630.

  32. Muttaqin, Z. (2017). Pergulatan keberagamaan Umat Khonghucu [Confucianism’s religious struggles] [Master’s thesis, Fakultas Ushuluddin dan Filsafat, UIN Syarif Hidayatullah].

  33. Neal, J. (Ed.). (2013). Handbook of faith and spirituality in the workplace: Emerging research and practice. Springer New York.

  34. Novanto, Y., Handoyo, S., & Setiawan, J. L. (2022a). Predicting the life satisfaction of Indonesian Christian employees: Examining the role of religiosity, perceived organizational support, and meaningful work. Jurnal Psikologi Ulayat, 9(1), 116–141.

  35. Novanto, Y., Handoyo, S., & Setiawan, J. L. (2022b). The role of religiosity, self-efficacy, social support, and perceived organizational support on the life satisfaction of christian theological seminary lecturers in East Java: Meaning of work as mediator. Journal of Educational, Health and Community Psychology, 11(2), 227–266.

  36. Nurwardani, P., Saksama, H. Y., Sudiana, U., Mulyono, E., Prawatyani, S. J., Anwar, A. A., Evawany, Priyautama, F., Festanto, A., Ary Festanto, & Rudi Ismoyo. (2016). Pendidikan Agama Khong Hu Cu di pendidikan tinggi [Confucian Religious Education in higher education]. Kementerian Riset, Teknologi dan Pendidikan Tinggi Republik Indonesia.

  37. Onça, S. S., & Bido, D. S. (2019). Antecedents and consequences of meaningful work. RAM. Revista de Administração Mackenzie, 20(2), eRAMG190096.

  38. Pavot, W., & Diener, E. (2004). The subjective evaluation of well-being in adulthood: Findings and implications. Ageing International, 29(2), 113–135.

  39. Rosso, B. D., Dekas, K. H., & Wrzesniewski, A. (2010). On the meaning of work: A theoretical integration and review. Research in Organizational Behavior, 30, 91–127.

  40. Scharen, C. (2019). Teaching toward the practice of ministry today. CrossCurrents, 69(1), 64–73.

  41. Seligman, M. E. P. (2004). Authentic happiness: Using the new positive psychology to realize your potential for lasting fulfillment (Reprint edition). Atria.

  42. Shyim, E. C., & Korb, K. A. (2016). Factors contributing to the life satisfaction of secondary school teachers in Jos North LGA. Journal of Educational Foundations, 6, 27–36.

  43. Sirgy, M. J. (2012). Consequences of hedonic well-being, life satisfaction, and eudaimonia. In M. J. Sirgy, The psychology of quality of life: Hedonic well-being, life satisfaction, and eudaimonia (pp. 45–60). Springer Netherlands.

  44. Sousa, L., Lyubomirsky, S., & Worell, J. (2001). Life satisfaction. In Encyclopedia of women and gender: Vol. Vol 2: Sex similarities and differences and the impact of society on gender (pp. 667–676). Academic Press.

  45. Steger, M. F. (2016). Creating meaning and purpose at work. In The Wiley Blackwell handbook of the psychology of positivity and strengths-based approaches at work (pp. 60–81). John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  46. Steger, M. F., & Dik, B. J. (2009). If one is looking for meaning in life, does it help to find meaning in work? Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being, 1(3), 303–320.

  47. Steger, M. F., Dik, B. J., & Duffy, R. D. (2012). Measuring meaningful work: The Work and Meaning Inventory (WAMI). Journal of Career Assessment, 20(3), 322–337.

  48. Ulum, R. (2019). Potret umat agama Khonghucu di Indonesia: Religiusitas,  rekognisi dan pelayanan keagamaan [Portrait of Confucian religious community in Indonesia: Religiosity, recognition and religious service]. In R. Ulum (Ed.), Potret umat agama Khonghucu di Indonesia: Religiusitas,  rekognisi dan pelayanan keagamaan [Portrait of Confucian religious community in Indonesia: Religiosity, recognition and religious service] (pp. 1–21). Litbangdiklat Press.

  49. van Wingerden, J., & van der Stoep, J. (2017). The role of meaningful work in employees’ work-related and general well-being. International Journal of Human Resource Studies, 7(4), 23.

  50. Veenhoven, R. (1996). The study of life satisfaction. In W. E. Saris, R. Veenhoven, A. C. Scherpenzeel, & B. Bunting (Eds.), A comparative study of satisfaction with life in Europe (pp. 11–48). Eotvos University Press.

  51. Veronica, C., & Moerkardjono, S. R. (2019). Meaningful work dan komitmen terhadap organisasi pada dosen [Meaningful work and commitment to the organization of lecturers]. Jurnal Ilmu Perilaku, 3(2), 82–94.

  52. Vuong, Q.-H., Bui, Q.-K., La, V.-P., Vuong, T.-T., Nguyen, V.-H. T., Ho, M.-T., Nguyen, H.-K. T., & Ho, M.-T. (2018). Cultural additivity: Behavioural insights from the interaction of Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism in folktales. Palgrave Communications, 4(1), 1–15.

  53. Watson, N. K. (2000). Christian ministry and Christian people: Some thoughts on sacramental theology. New Blackfriars, 81(948), 89–95.

  54. Wibowo, A. M. (2016). Realitas pendidikan Agama Khonghucu pada tingkat SD di Kota Pekalongan Jawa Tengah [The reality of Confucian religious education at the elementary level in Pekalongan City, Central Java]. Al-Qalam, 20(2), 221–220.

  55. Yao, X. (1999). Confucianism and its modern values: Confucian moral, educational and spiritual heritages revisited. Journal of Beliefs & Values, 20(1), 30–40.

  56. Zhai, Q., Wang, S., & Weadon, H. (2020). Thriving at work as a mediator of the relationship between workplace support and life satisfaction. Journal of Management & Organization, 26(2), 168–184.