Penafsiran Hukum tentang “Partisipasi Langsung dalam Permusuhan” dalam Kasus-kasus Kejahatan Perang

Arlina Permanasari

Abstract

Istilah “Partisipasi Langsung dalam Permusuhan” merupakan istilah yang terdapat dalam Konvensi Jenewa 1949 dan Protokol-protokol Tambahan 1977 yang menimbulkan berbagai penafsiran hukum, karena kedua perjanjian internasional tersebut tidak memberikan definisi maupun penjelasan lebih lanjut. Masalah yang timbul dari ketiadaan pengertian ini adalah bagaimana hakim menafsirkan apakah seseorang dapat dianggap berpartisipasi dalam suatu tindakan permusuhan dalam suatu konflik bersenjata dalam kasus-kasus kejahatan perang. Penelitian ini bersifat normatif dengan pendekatan deskriptif analitis terhadap bahan-bahan hukum primer dan sekunder yang didapatkan dari studi kepustakaan dan dianalisis secara kualitatif berdasarkan hukum humaniter internasional.  Dalam mengatasi tidak adanya pemahaman tentang istilah tersebut, ICRC mengeluarkan suatu “pedoman penafsiran” (Interpretive Guidance) yang bersifat tidak mengikat secara hukum. Walaupun menimbulkan kontroversi dan bukan merupakan dokumen hukum, pendekatan yang diusung dalam “pedoman penafsiran” ternyata telah digunakan sebagai pembahasan dalam putusan-putusan, namun belum sepenuhnya digunakan oleh hakim sebagai suatu dasar hukum yang mengikat dalam kasus kejahatan perang.

Keywords

Humanitarian law; direct participation in hostilities; ICRC interpretive guidance

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References

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Ius Quia Iustum Law Journal of Islamic University of Indonesia

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